Tag Archives: science

Some fun and interesting facts about friction

As the basic definition goes, friction opposed relative sliding between two surfaces in contact. A common misconception is that friction opposes motion. Following are some fun facts about friction. I’ll also include the findings of my discovery in the field of friction.

  • Almost all the work you do in daily life relies on friction. Friction is an electromagnetic force. It’s basically the nuclei of one surface pulling the electrons on the other surface and vice versa effecting in the two surfaces holding each other. So, whenever you pull or hold something, you are able to do it because of friction.

  • Many people wonder how our universe would have been if friction was not there. Well, our universe wouldn’t have existed if friction had not been present. Yes, that is correct. As I said, friction is an electromagnetic force acting between atoms of two surfaces. That means, wherever there are atoms, there is electromagnetic force and thus, there is friction. So, it can be said that friction is an unavoidable outcome of the existence of atoms. Atoms form molecules which are held together by electromagnetic force or friction which help in forming matter. Microbes, animals, us, the earth, the other planets, the stars, none of them would exist without matter and therefore friction. All that the universe would have had is floating electrons and nuclei of elements.

  • Friction is the reason why we can move. When we walk, what is happening between our feet and the ground? Effectively, we are trying to slide the feet backwards and the friction pushes us forward. It is almost the same for cars and motorcycles or anything that moves on wheels. Yes, it is undisputed that sliding forward on a frictionless surface or while being levitated is most energy efficient but we are not able to do that yet on a daily basis.

  • Life exists because of friction. It is needless to say that without friction there won’t be any matter and life can’t even find a basis to start on. Let’s say there was accidentally a surface formed in this universe, containing only nuclei and electrons just moving in contact with each other due to a common momentum (momentum is the product of mass and velocity of a body). Still, there is no chance of formation of the type of life known to us on this surface without friction. The reason is life needs binding of atoms and then matter flowing over other matter which can only happen if friction is present. Otherwise, binding of atoms based only on perfect combination of arbitrary momenta is highly improbable.

  • Now, I’ll give some information about my discovery related to friction between sliding surfaces or in one word tribology. Me under the guidance of my professor Dr. S K Roychowdhury, a man I place in high regard discovered that X-rays are emitted when a surface slides on another surface. This work was further carried on by G. N. Krishna. The details can be found in: X-Ray Emission during Rubbing of Metals, Vol. 36, No. 3 (2014) 229-235, Tribology in Industry, Tribology in Industry

That is all I have to say on this subject till now.


Thermal Equilibrium with some humour

The other day, I was asked by a student to explain thermal equilibrium. I told her to guess an answer. So she said that thermal equilibrium between two bodies means they are at equal temperature and there is no flow of heat between the two.
I said, “you got the first part correct and second part wrong. There is equal heat exchange between the two bodies”
I added, “the electrons carry heat and the amount kind of depends on the body’s temperature.”
She asked, “if the other body is at the same temperature then why would the electron carry heat there?”
I answered, ” it is because electrons don’t have cellphones”

7 compelling pieces of evidence of the existence of parallel universes

This might seem an excerpt from science fiction but it is not. Scientists have been working to find the existence of parallel universes since decades with no solid proof. However, we have come across certain pieces of evidence which suggest parallel universes may exist.

1. The Many Worlds Theory: It is a hypothesis produced by the physicist Hugh Everett in 1957 suggesting all possible alternate histories and futures are real within their own worlds. It could be a lot more complicated than that, but the version that most will understand is that there are a large – possibly infinite – number of universes, and everything that could possibly have happened in our past occurred in some other reality.
2. Weird Artefacts: There are actually a significant number of artefacts, found through archaeological digs or otherwise, that nobody can explain the origins of. The sort of dusty leftovers from old civilisations that usually crop up at such occasions, except experts can’t pin point where they actually came from. Carbon dating doesn’t work, they’re unfamiliar to any particular period of history.


This photo is of the infamous Antikythera mechanism, a sort of stone computer found near a Greek island that nobody can explain. So what’s with all these weird things? Are they simply artefacts from eras and civilisations that were never recorded, and thus fell down the cracks of the annals of history? Are they some sort of leftover from time travellers? Are they forgeries? Or could they be some sort of object from an alternate reality that somehow slipped through into ours?
3. The Story Of Lerina García: Lerina wasn’t an alien. For Ms Garcia, the truth was far more terrifying: the reason, that her morning routine seemed so completely off, that she didn’t recognise her co-workers or the things that cluttered her home, was because she’d slipped into an alternate dimension. All the small incongruities added up to make not other explanation seem possible. That’s if it isn’t a hoax, and she didn’t just suffer from memory loss. However, I should mention she did get herself checked by a doctor and there was no trace of drugs or any other medicine.
4. Deja Vu: Ok, this can easily be a hallucination but we can’t say for sure. It’s one of the most singularly peculiar experiences you can have as a human being, and yet, it’s happened to nearly everyone: the uncanny sensation of deja vu, where you enter a situation or do an action or see something, and get the feeling that it’s happened before. Usually it’s put down to some misfiring of the brain, perhaps retrofitting the memory to think that something’s more familiar than it really is (for whatever reason). Even more strange is deja vecu, which is the feeling that you know what’s going to happen next, too. There is something else, known as alter vu where one remembers their history differently.
5. The Man From Taured: This happened when humanity was visited by a caucasian man from Taured. In 1954 a man arrived into Tokyo airport with a passport from a country that didn’t exist. Customs officials detained the man, on the charge of carrying fake papers to try and get into Japan, but he was adamant: Taured was a real place, a European country with thousands of years of history, and that he held other papers (bank statements and the like) with the name on. The place he showed as Taured was actually Andorra according to our maps. After several hours of interrogation, they put him up in a hotel, and the next morning he vanished along with his papers in the Japanese authority’s locker.
6. Dimensions In Time: Our understanding of the universe exists across a 3D vector. In actuality there’s a fourth dimension, and humans are only capable of viewing static slices of that 4D system. Beyond that there might also be the fifth dimension, which is really the preserve of mathematicians and physicists, but it’s known to exist: that’s basically a parallel world, as shown in the movie Interstellar.
7. The Double Slit Experiment: According to quantum mechanics, which describes the motions and interactions of particles at a fundamental sub-atomic level, we have a good idea of how the universe works by observing the behaviours of electrons and photons. Which, apparently, can be in multiple places or multiple states of existence simultaneously. This is called superposition. That’s kind of like the idea of alternate realities.
It’s a pretty simple test, provided you have the right materials. All you do is shoot a individual electrons through a sheet of a material with two vertical slits in it, and onto a blank white screen. There is a 50/50 chance the electron will go through each slit. You’ll also get to see the electronic interacting, interfering each others…except only one is around at the time. How is this possible? It’s because the electron might be existing in multiple places at the same time. Take that to a wider view, and you’ve got the many world theory in action.